Paediatric bacterial meningitis is a neurological emergency which, despite advances in medical management, still has a significant morbidity and mortality. Since the skull cannot expand,the inflammatory response will lead to cerebral edema, which will result in increased intracranial pressure and impeded cerebral perfusion. It can be caused by viruses, parasites, fungi, and bacteria. Knowing whether meningitis is caused by a virus or bacterium is important because the severity.
Nosocomial bacterial meningitis is most often related to either complicated head trauma or invasive procedures, such as craniotomy, placement of ventricular catheters, intrathecal infusion of. Bacterial meningitis is a condition in which the dural layers lining the brain the meninges have become inflamed. Other symptoms may include nausea, vomiting, sensitivity of the eyes to bright lights, and confusion. A fever, severe headache, and stiff neck are the leading symptoms of meningitis. Neisseria meningitidis, often referred to as meningococcus, is a gramnegative bacterium that can cause meningitis and other forms of meningococcal disease such as meningococcemia, a lifethreatening sepsis. Meningitis is an infection of the covering of the brain and the spinal cord.
Clinical characteristics and therapeutic outcomes of nosocomial. Bacterial meningitis is a serious disease caused by inflammation of the membranes of the brain and spinal cord meninges. Viral meningitis is an infection of the meninges a thin lining covering the brain and spinal cord by any one of a number of different viruses. A prospective study of etiology of childhood acute. With the advent of antibiotics, the mortality for h. Nosocomial bacterial meningitis may result from invasive pro cedures e.
Patients with bacterial meningitis are usually treated by primary care and emergency medicine physicians at the time of initial presentation, often in consultation with infectious diseases specialists, neurologists, and neurosurgeons. If you have problems viewing pdf files, download the latest version of adobe reader for language access assistance, contact the ncats public information officer genetic and rare diseases information center gard po box 8126, gaithersburg, md 208988126 tollfree. Summary bacterial meningitis is a lifethreatening condition that can affect all ages, but is most common in babies and children. In younger patients, however, nosocomial meningitis is usually related to cerebrospinal fluid csf shunt infections. The objective of these practice guidelines is to provide clinicians with. We present three well documented cases of isolated bacterial meningitis in endocarditis. If there is earlyonset in utero, disseminated abscesses and granulomas. Aug 09, 2010 genetic differences that make some people susceptible to developing meningococcal meningitis and septicaemia, and others naturally immune, are revealed in a new study of over 6,000 people. Bacterial meningitis is an unusual first manifestation but a major complication of infective endocarditis. In indiana, cases of meningitis and other infections in. Some children with meningitis may have longterm problems, but this depends on the cause of the infection and the age of the child. All patients with bacterial meningitis and many with viral meningitis will be treated in the hospital. Bacterial meningitis is an interesting disease in that the damage done by the disease is mostly caused by the hosts response to the pathogen rather than the pathogen itself.
Bacterial meningitis in adults research explorer universiteit van. Three types of bacteria are responsible for 80% of all bacterial meningitis. Introduction bacterial meningitis is a medical emergency, and immediate steps must be taken to establish the specific cause and initiate effective therapy. Meningitis is an inflammation of the tissue that covers the brain and spinal cord that can be caused by several different types of, as well as viruses and fungibacteria. Nosocomial bacterial meningitis is most often related to either complicated head trauma or invasive procedures, such as craniotomy, placement of ventricular catheters, intrathecal infusion of medic. Meningitis, bacterial nord national organization for. Bacterial meningitis is an inflammation of the meninges, including the pia, arachnoid, and subarachnoid space, that occurs in response to infection with bacteria andor bacterial products. Key priorities for implementation meningitis bacterial. Transmission occurs through close contact, droplets, or. Over the past four decades, clinical and neuropathologic studies have documented the clear association between bacterial meningitis and brain edema formation, impairments of.
Clinical symptoms include headache, stiff neck, high fever, nauseavomiting and rash. Pathogenesis and pathophysiology of bacterial meningitis. Through the use of experimental animal models of infection, a great deal of information has been gleaned concerning the pathogenic and pathophysiologic mechanisms operable in. The mortality rate of untreated disease due to streptococcus pneumoniae and haemophilus influenzae approaches 100 percent, and even with optimal therapy, it is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Meningitis is usually caused by a viral or bacterial infection. Pdf nosocomial bacterial meningitis is most often related to either complicated head trauma or invasive procedures, such as craniotomy, placement of. Bacterial meningitis is a lifethreatening condition that requires prompt recognition and treatment. A health care provider diagnoses meningitis by observing the patients symptoms and testing blood and spinal fluid. In newborns and infants, fever, headache, and neck stiffness may be absent or difficult to detect. Genetic differences that make some people susceptible to developing meningococcal meningitis and septicaemia, and others naturally immune. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated in blood cultures of all patients, but was found only in the. By joseph benningtoncastro april 03, 2018 bacterial meningitis. These viruses are found in the throat and feces stool of infected people. Bacterial meningitis lepper mark h spies, harold w.
Chapter 2 epidemiology of meningitis caused by neisseria. Aug 24, 2017 bacterial meningitis is a condition in which the dural layers lining the brain the meninges have become inflamed. Bacterial meningitis in the united states in 1995 nejm. The disease usually comes on quickly with severe headaches, high fever, pain and stiffness of the neck, back, and shoulders and nausea follows shortly after all of these. Meningococcal disease is a serious bacterial illness. The symptoms of bacterial meningitis include a sudden fever, headache, and stiff neck. Background before the introduction of the conjugate vaccines, haemophilus influenzae type b was the major cause of bacterial meningitis in the united states, and meningitis was primarily a disease. Consider bacterial meningitis and meningococcal septicaemia in children and young people who present with the symptoms and signs in table 1. Victoria beckham and brad pitt were infected with viral meningitis, which is less serious than the bacterial meningitis. Prognostic value of eeg in neonatal bacterial meningitis. Bacterial meningitis is now a top 10 infectious cause of death worldwide, and about half the survivors have neurologic and other sequelae of the disease. Bacterial meningitis declined by 31% during the survey period, down from about two cases per 100,000 people in 1999 to. A group of viruses called enteroviruses is the most common cause of viral meningitis. Viral meningitis is the most common form of meningitis and is caused by an infection with one of several types of viruses.
The objective of these practice guidelines is to provide clinicians with recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of bacterial meningitis. Health report any student failing to provide the required. Treatment of acute bacterial meningitis epidemiology, diagnosis. Pathogenesis of bacterial meningitis sciencedirect. Nosocomial bacterial meningitis is infection of the leptomeninges acquired during hospitalization. Meningitis can also be caused by bleeding into the meninges, cancer, an inflammatory response to certain types of chemotherapy or other chemical agents. Bacterial meningitis is very serious and can be deadly. Therapy should be initiated as soon as blood cultures have been obtained, preceding any imaging studies. Meningitis, bacterial nord national organization for rare. About 10% of adults are carriers of the bacteria in. Genetic differences that make some people susceptible to. Gastroenteritis with watery diarrhea, with fever and muscle pain.
Meningitis can result from many causes, both infectious and noninfectious. Diagnosis and management of bacterial meningitis in the. In total, 408 children were diagnosed with suspected acute bacterial meningitis. To determine the incidence and etiology of meningitis in turkey, cerebrospinal fluid csf samples were obtained prospectively from children 1 month17 years of age with a clinical diagnosis of acute bacterial meningitis. Bacterial meningitis disease plan utah department of health. Nov 01, 2004 in a recent study involving 301 adults with bacterial meningitis, the clinical features at baseline that were associated with abnormal findings of a ct scan of the head were an age of. The type of treatment depends on the germ that caused the meningitis. Meningitis about bacterial meningitis infection cdc. Some of the most common causes of bacterial meningitis include neisseria meningitidis, streptococcus. Bacterial meningitis remains a disease with associated unacceptable morbidity and mortality rates despite the availability of effective bactericidal antimicrobial therapy. Practice guidelines for acute bacterial meningitidis. Vaccination against common pathogens has decreased the burden of disease.
Some children with meningitis may have longterm problems, but this depends on the cause of the infection and the age of. Meningitis is an infection of the fluid of a persons spinal cord and the fluid that surrounds the brain. Bacterial meningitis is the most common type of meningitis. However, permanent disabilities such as brain damage, hearing loss, and learning disabilities can result from the infection. Meningococcal meningitis is caused by the bacteria neisseria meningitidis, and. November 2006 viral meningitis is also available in portable document format pdf, 15kb, 2pg. Nosocomial bacterial meningitis can be caused by in vasive procedures e. Nosocomial bacterial meningitis is infection of the leptomeninges acquired during. The development of bacterial meningitis progresses through four interconnected phases. Meningitis is an acute inflammation o the pertective membranes coverin the harn and spinal cord, kent collectively as the meninges references. Early diagnosis and rapid initiation of empiric antimicrobial and adjunctive therapy are vital.
Superinfection in adult bacterial meningitis abm is a condition wherein the cerebrospinal fluid csf grows new pathogens during the. Correlation between the neonatal eeg and the neurological examination in the first year of life in infants with bacterial meningitis. The bacterium is referred to as a coccus because it is round, and more specifically, diplococcus because of its tendency to form pairs. Nosocomial bacterial meningitis new england journal. Neonatal disease transmission across the placenta or during delivery. The classic symptoms of bacterial meningitis are similar to those of other forms. Csf outflow resistance is elevated and inhibits csf flow from the subarachnoid space to the dural sinuses. Bacterial meningitis is an infection that leads to inflammation of the meninges, the coverings of the brain. Meningitis meningitis is a severe illness characterized by serous inflammation of the linings of the brain and spinal cord meninges. Bacterial meningitis genetic and rare diseases information.
A prospective study of etiology of childhood acute bacterial. In the preantibiotic era, bacterial meningitis due to streptococcus pneumoniae and haemophilus influenzae was virtually 100 percent fatal. No bacterial disease has undergone a more dramatic change in epidemiology during the past decade than acute bacterial meningitis. Meningitis is an inflammation of the covering of the brain and spinal cordalso called the meninges. Most children with viral meningitis recover completely.
Urgent clinical care is necessary for people with bacterial meningitis, because death can occur in as little as a few hours without treatment. The most common disease caused by neisseria meningitidis is meningococcal meningitis or more commonly known as bacterial meningitis. Meningitis can be acquired spontaneously in the community communityacquired bacterial meningitis 2 or in the hospital as a complication of invasive procedures or head trauma nosocomial. Haemophilus influenzae, bacterial meningitis still occurs worldwide, with peak incidence in. Meningitis bacterial meningitis and meningococcal disease.
Over recent decades new vaccines have led to a change in epidemiology of the disease. Viral meningitis, also called aseptic meningitis, is much more common than bacterial meningitis. This guideline covers bacterial meningitis and meningococcal septicaemia, focusing on management of these conditions in children and young people aged younger than 16 years in primary and secondary care, and using evidence of direct relevance to these age groups where available. Beyond the newborn period, the most common causes of bacterial meningitis are neisseria meningitidis, streptococcus pneumoniae, and haemophilus influenzae. Meningococcal disease also causes blood infections. Symptoms and complications of viral, bacterial, and other types of meningitis. Adults with nosocomial meningitis are a distinct patient group, with infection caused by specific bacterial pathogens compared to those of communityacquired bacterial meningitis. Meningitis is an acute inflammation of meninges caused by bacterial, viral or fungal infection. We strongly recommend that you talk with a trusted healthcare. Meningitis is an inflammation of the tissues that cover the brain and spinal cord. Transmission occurs through close contact, droplets, or direct contact with respiratory secretions. Bacterial meningitis also produces effects on blood vessels in the subarachnoid space with resulting vasculitis, vessel narrowing, thrombosis, and ischemia or infarction of the brain. By means of the development of national guidelines, swab offers local antibiotic.
Determination of the etiology of bacterial meningitis and estimating cost of disease are important in guiding vaccination policies. The specific bacteria that cause nosocomial meningitis vary according to the pathogenesis and timing of infection after the predisposing event, so the choice of. Nosocomial bacterial meningitis may result from invasive procedures for examples, such as craniotomies, the placement of internal or external ventricular catheters, lumbar puncture, intrathecal infusions of medications, or spinal anesthesia, head trauma, or hospitalacquired bacteremia complicated by metastatic infection. Diagnosis, initial management, and prevention of meningitis. In adults, nosocomial bacterial meningitis usually arises following a neurosurgical postoperative wound infection. Isolated bacterial meningitis as the key syndrome of.
Bacterial meningitis texas law senate bill sb 31 requires every public school district to provide parents with information about meningitis. Several types of bacteria, including streptococcus pneumoniae and neisseria meningitidis can cause inflammation of the meninges. Banks guidelines place the threshold for risk at about 50,000mm3,21 but the british. Patients with bacterial meningitis are usually treated by primary care and emergency. Practice guidelines for the management of bacterial meningitis.470 283 1495 1249 953 514 936 1467 100 170 1051 1030 123 823 824 980 615 995 1095 998 1363 65 90 922 849 753 392 1257 321 1059